Definition and Importance of Motivation
Motivation is a psychological force that moves a person into action to attain preset goals or the satisfaction of certain needs (Slavin, 2006). Ormrod (2008) defines motivation as an internal state that arouses us to action , pushes us in particular direction and keeps us engaged in certain activities (Ormrod, 2008, p. 452). In sports terminology, you "have to want it to win it". Motivation can be either intrinsic or extrinsic:
Extrinsic motivation - is motivation that comes from an external source. A person is motivate by external factors that are unrelated to task that is being performed ( Ormrod, 2008). An example, receiving an increase in pay from one's employer for obtaining a new degree. Employees are extrinsically motivated by monetary compensation, because money is a goal which provides satisfaction separate from the actual task (Osterloh & Frey, 1999). A student wanting good grades, or praise that come from accomplishing a task. Ormrod (2008) states people who are extrinsically motivated are motivated to perform a task as a means to an end, not as an end in itself (Ormrod, 2008).
Intrinsic motivation - the source of the motivation comes from an internal factor. The motivating factors come from within a person and is related to the task being performed (Ormrod, 2008). Individuals who are intrinsically motivated engage in activities for the sheer pleasure it affords them, assists them in developing important skills or for ethical or moral reasons (Ormrod, 2008). An example, a student returning to school for the sheer satisfaction of obtaining a degree for personal gratification.
Important Concepts of Motivation
Need for Affiliation
Need for Approval
Need for Achievement
Huber, D. L. (2006). Leadership and nursing care management (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
Ormrod, J. E. (2008). Human learning (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Osterloh, M. & Frey, B. S. (September- October, 2000). Motivation Knowledge Transfer, and Organizational Form. Organizational Science. 2 (5) pp. 538-550.
Slavin, R. E. (2006). Educational psychology: Theory and practice (8th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.